Combines the power of ancient Vedic Astrology along with Numerology of Hebrews, th Swetta Jumaani comes from the famous Jumaani family. An ardent fan of her father, Sundeep Kataria is the most sought-after expert in the field of Vedic Astrology. Neeta Bakhru is a qualified Vedic Astrologer. She obtained two year post-gradu Learn to read your own horoscope and delve in the pleasure of studying it and knowing its significance.
Our Astrology tutorial is a simple step-by-step instruction that will guide you on how to correctly interpret your own horoscope. It will also help you throw light on the distinctive and unique traits of your horoscope, or of anyone, you would like to read, and then predict the effects that the different planets and houses would have.
It is unfortunate that even Indians fall prey to false Western propaganda. Numerical month names were used by pre-Christian Romans. But some months were later renamed according to Roman deities. Till the end of Republican Era 1rst century BC , six months still had numerial names, from fifth Quintilis to tenth December.
Later, Julius Caesar was deified and his name was used to rename Quintilis as July, and afterwards Augustus Caesar's name was used to rename sixth month Sextilis as August. Meaning of Quintilis is "fifth", and meaning of Sextilis is "sixth". But they say that January and February were added into Roman Calendar in BC, just because there is a proof of naming those months as January "Ianuarius" and February "Februarius" , but there is no proof that those months were freshly introduced into the Calendar and were non renaming of earlier numerial months Eleventh and Twelfth.
Anyhow, there is no controversy concerning the fact that March was the first Roman month in the Roman Calendar which was solar for Year's reckoning as in Hindus and Jews. Besides, Roman months were luni-solar like those of Hindus and Jews, and therefore beginning of Roman months were in middle of months, eg Middlemarch. Before that Arabic calendar was exactly like the Hindu system and of Jews. Muslims all over the world, including in India, use Hijri calendar for religious purposes. The Hindi article HijriOrigins. Hindus religious calendar uses many eras in various parts of India, among which Vikram Era is the most popular, while Shaka Era is not used in any part of India.
Thus, this National Calendar is neither National nor International. That is why no one uses it. Those who imposed it use the christian Calendar, and the devout Hindu population use their traditional calendars. Vikram Samvat is most popular, esp among North Indian traditionalists, for religious almanacs and calendars of Hindus. Creation Srishti started with New Moon date, because Sun and Moon stood at same point which was zero degree, i.
Therefore, the mathematical year reckoned from that day, which is Solar or Saura year, starts with nirayana Sun at the start of Mesha. At the beginning of Creation, which was New Moon day, only the white half of the month of Chaitra was in the first year of Creation because that month ended just one fortnight after the onset of Creation on Full Moon day. Hence, Chaitra was the first month of the Creation.
But only the bright half of Chaitra was included in that first year, because Creation did not start with a Full Moon. This is followed even today : the first month of religious calendar of Hindu starts with second half of Chaitra which is white half or shukla paksha, and Krishna Paksha or dark half of Chaitra is at the end of Hindu Year.
There are This extra month is a normal month, not an adhika or kshaya month. Since the beginning of Kaliyuga, two such extra months have cropped up. Therefore, the ancient rule of naming months according to nakshatra on Full Moon, the first month of Kaliyuga should be Chaitra. Here, we find ourselves in a dilemma. But closer examination reveals deeper phenomena. If one extra month is in Removing months which are divisible with 12, there are 1. Therefore, onset of Creation was mathematically two months before the mathematical month in which Kaliyuga started.
Thus, we have two traditions. Therefore, this extra month after every In mid-April , years of Srishti have elapsed. Being large numbers, some nearby era is used in practice. Hence, Yudhishthira Era, Vikram Era, Shaka Era of many types of which Kanishka's is the latest, and many other eras of regional significance are used from time to time. But in some mediaeval eras, beginning of year has been shifted away from Chaitra.
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Now, take the case of modern physical astronomy Long term average of sidereal year is Long term average of synodical lunar month is Scientists have no interest in luni-solar calendar. In 19 years, there will be lunar months, which will help in quick estimation of lunar months, tithis and other phenomena in next year cycle, provided the difference of 19 solar years with months is not ignored This difference of 0. That period will be of Hence, in each There was a convention in ancient Greece to have cycles of 19 year Metonic Cycles, adding up to years, very near to Suryasiddhantic value.
But Rev. They are correct : Indians always disparaged physical life, physical sciences, physical observation, and everything physical. It is another matter that India excelled in physical things too and made best articles in the world. But social conventions are also important. Therefore, sometimes traditions and conventions apparently override mathematics, but actually it is not a real violation of mathematics, it is simply a matter of conventions.
Some conventions may be wrong, and some may be divine, for instance the Vedic convention of month ending with FM which is the basis of religious and astrological significance of tithis and pakshas, although it makes the first month on Hindu year a half month. Similarly, the year cycle is not exactly integral and in Nakshatras are fixed points in sky. Solar Year is defined with respect to such a fixed point, namely Ashvini or Mesha onset.
But lengths of Synodical Months are not measured with respect to nakshatras or rashis, they are measured with respect to lunar motions with respect to Sun. The long term average Length of Synodical Month is an irrational number, and therefore the month naming convention based on Full Moon in some Nakshatra never fully coincides with the Nakshatra of same month in next year. That is why it is called "mukhya". And the third type based on year cycle has no special name for it, and its use is limited : only for determining some inauspicious tithis. Why onset tithis of Manvantaras and Yugas are inauspicious?
Because this martyaloka itself is inauspicious, and getting permanently out of it Moksha is the most auspicious phenomenon. Some ignorants argue that year cycle is my imagination and never existed in society. All these different traditions have different applications and they are all part of the same larger Vedic-Puranic tradition. It is still used in large parts of India from Uttara Pradesha to Bihar, Bengal and Assam with some regional variations. Earliest reference to a mahayuga's division into four yugas Krit, Treta, Dvapar and Kali is found in Aitereya Brahmana 7th panchikaa, 15 ; or chapter 33 , belonging to Rgveda, in the story of Harishchandra, Indra talking to Rohit :.
Therefore, according to this Vedic evidence, the first luni-solar month was a half month. Hence, all years must begin with Chaitra. Hindu year cannot begin with any other month according to this month naming convention based on nakshatra of Full Moon. It is called Gauna because it is secondary to mathematically primary technique of counting months.
But according to the convention naming months on the basis of lunar nakshatra on Full Moon day, even on Kaliyuga onset the first month must be Chaitra. There are further details which I need not discuss here but some summarised hints are provided : different Kalpas start with different tithis, there being thirty such variations of Kalpa. For instance, page number 92 in Advance Ephemeris by N C Lahiri gives the list of all intercalary months during six year cycles from to AD. It shows that year cycle does not always help almanac makers in correctly finding the intercalary months.
Therefore, during a year period there is a mismatch of 0. This mismatch increases within less than a century to produce an error of more than a tithi and sometimes intercalary months also change. Hence, the Metonic system is useless in actual practice and is merely a crude guide.
Other theories would need different periods for synchronization due to difference in lengths of month and year. But a very long period is also useless in practice for almanac makers.
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Two extra months have elapsed during past five millenia of Kaliyuga which are not part of year cycle due to one extra month per Both these conventions are rooted in tradition as well as in mathematics. It means month-names must be changed once every years to conform to the naming convention based on nakshatras. Suppose we change In this way, you get two types of year : one is Romaka Year of Thus, there will be one month more in sidereal years.
Ptolemy's conclusions rests on confusion of luni-solar year which may be called Romaka Year with tropical year. Suppose there is slight change in length of month or year, so that we need a full cycle of not Then, years would have lunar months : 19 multiplied with one lunar months and one extra month. But if we use modern sidereal year and divide such years with lunations, we get a very wrong lunar month which is short by about 3 hours in one year.
For modern academics, such suggestions are blasphemous! But what was the use of Metonic Cycle? The year cycle is practically useless, and year cycle does not lead to any other practical significance for ancient almanac makers than suggested above. I have published some summaries of my studies on Chaldean cuneiform clay tablets few years ago during group discussions, but I could not proceed to find out the year length of Chaldeans. Please help, if you can find time. It is wrong to assume that ancients were idiots as Darwin and his followers assumed.
This attitude is destroying the great heritage of ancient wisdom. Reading Indo-European languages like ancient Greek according to Semitic alphabet and then imposing such distorted pronunciations on Egyptian hieroglyphs has already done a great deal of harm to a proper study of ancient history. For instance, the correct pronunciation of Alexander was "al-keshan-tr" according to hieroglyphs read by me, which is very near to Sanskrit : al implies alamkarana, keshan carries the same meaning as kesharee kaisar in Greek for Caesar or Lion, and tr is nominal suffix in Indo-European such as in pitr, maatr.
Or, it may be Egyptian version of Macedonian word. But in all cases, the hieroglyphs used were pronounced al-keshan-tr in Hellenistic Egypt.
Today panchanga (Hindu Calendar), Rashi, Nakshatra, Rahu kal, October 08, 12222
Romaka was a divine city one may call it "mythological", but it is improper to use synonymns which may change the original meanings at the equator and at ninety degrees west of Lanka-Ujjain longitude, at Kms SW from Liberia in mid-Atlantic. A divine city cannot be even perceived by humans, without divine will. The correction is " divided by " which is th part of solar year called 'saura-dina', its unit is one degree of Sun's motion, here mean motion is used, saura-dina in actual practice is according to true Sun.
Thibaut did not explain this correction, which leads to confusion among readers. A difference of 18 hours or 0. It is the longitude of Corinth. Hence, Thibaut was certainly wrong in equating Yavanapura with Alexandria. He was misled with a prejudice of compressing entire Indian astronomy of "historical period" to post-Ptolemaic era, when Alexandria and not Athens was the chief centre of Greek learning.
He was not dishonest, but was influenced with a bias characteristic of the modern era. There is a quantity " divided by " as mentioned above applied to the ahargana-formula by Varahanihira to change the longitude of Yavanapura to India Ujjain for changing the ahargana-formula of Romakasiddhanta to make it compatible for Suryasiddhanta. This quantity is composite to two components : 1 18 hours of time difference between Sunset-system of Romakasiddhanta and midnight system of Suryasiddhanta, which is equivalent to 0.
It is equal to 0. Therefore, distance of Yavanapura from Ujjan should be Ujjain Mahakala Temple has the longitude of Therefore, Yavanapura of Romakasiddhanta as known to Varahamihira was situated at This longitude cannot belong to any other country than Greece during ancient times. The word 'Yavana' is related to Ionia and Ionian Sea, hence east-central Greece should be the logical centre of longitude of Greece.
There may be slight crudity in the figures of Romakasiddhanta, but the number "" used for converting the longitude of Yavanapura to that of Ujjain allows an error of 0.
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Therefore, the Romakasiddhanta as known to Varahamihira must be releated to some ancient school of Greece much before Alexandria rose to prominence. The year of Hipparchus also coincides with that of Romakasiddhanta. Although Hipparchus and Ptolemy do not mention their 'year' as a luni-solar year, the manner in which all their "observations" contain exactly same "errors" in determination of tropical year, it is more probable that they believed the tradition year from Romakasiddhanta to be tropical and adjusted their observations to match with what they believed to be the correct value of tropical year.
The quantity ' 42 divided by ' days is the correction made in the mean longitude of Sun for the zero date of his epoch Thibaut also suggested it but did not explore. It gave an error of 28 days in years, or '42 divided by ' days in years, which was added as a correction to remove the error caused by the crude karana figure. There can be no other reason why he used the term '42 divided by ' days as a correction. Correction means his Mean Solar Year was crude version of some more refined value for which he made this correction.
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University of Western Australia Press. Gordon Melton Ricklefs; P. Voorhoeve; Annabel Teh Gallop Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia. De Casparis Indonesian Chronology. Ramachandra Dikshitar The Gupta Polity. Motilal Banarsidass. Sircar Indian Epigraphy. The Hindu Religious Year. The Indian Calendar. Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. Dates, and Vice Versa. Association Press.
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